By Sharp – 1997
A cute miniature re-bloomer that starts early; this little melon-orange gem is about 20” tall with 3 inch slightly fragrant flowers. It is a dormant diploid.$8.00
By Sharp – 1997
A cute miniature re-bloomer that starts early; this little melon-orange gem is about 20” tall with 3 inch slightly fragrant flowers. It is a dormant diploid.$8.00
By Rudolph – 1978
This large dormant tetraploid will really stand out in the garden. A bright blend of sunset colors; orange, red and yellow, on a 6” flower, held atop 36” scapes, will grab attention. The sunny yellow throat spreads to orange, and then red at the tips of the petals, with yellow mid ribs. The plant has huge fans and very sturdy scapes as well as heavy substance in the blooms, so it really stands up to our Wisconsin weather. A nice fragrance is a bonus. It starts blooming mid-season and then is listed as an extended bloomer, but in my garden it has been one of the latest as well.
Parentage: Commandment x seedling
Irises are classic garden plants. There are more than 200 species around the world but most gardeners are only aware of a few of these species. Most common is the large tall bearded iris (Iris germanica). You can find an iris for any climate from deserts to swamps. They also live in the Far North and the Deep South. The biggest requirement is sunlight. Iris come in every color of the rainbow and those that study Greek mythology know that the name “Iris” comes from the Greek goddess of the rainbow. You can find an iris in nearly any color; blue, purple, yellow, pink, white, black, orange, red, brown and combinations of these colors blended together. There is nothing like the classic, elegant shape of the iris. It has been a symbol of royalty since very early history.
Other types of Iris that are not “Bearded” include bulbous irises like Dutch, English, reticulated and Junos iris. Then there are irises with rhizomes, which besides the bearded iris also include beardless iris like Japanese, Siberian and Louisiana Iris. There are many native and species iris growing around the world. Our own native iris is the “blue flag” (iris versicolor). Another iris not mentioned so far is the crested irises.
Bearded Irises have been popular for a very long time. Studying historic iris is an interesting pastime. They have stuck around because they are so easy to grow and one of the easiest flowers to hybridize, yielding an ever increasing array of rainbow colors shapes and sizes. Beardless irises don’t cross breed as easily but bearded irises will often produce fertile seedlings from crosses between different species. They are persistent and although it is best to keep them weeded they will survive neglect for many years. Thousands of bearded iris varieties exist.
The variation in size is also extraordinary, ranging from a few inches to over 40 inches tall; tiny flowers or 7 inch blooms.
In general, the smallest ones bloom first, beginning in April here in Wisconsin and continuing through June. Each variety blooms for around 2 weeks but having different types will greatly extend the season. It is difficult to get Iris to re-bloom this far north but some will bloom again in fall in some parts of the country. When we do occasionally get a fall bloom we really appreciate it.
Our modern “Bearded Iris” hybrids come from a wide variety of species especially pumialie for the smaller iris and elatae for the large ones. Iris are classified by the American Iris Society into six groups; miniature dwarf, standard dwarf, intermediate, miniature tall, border and tall. Then to throw a wrench in there are the arilbred irises which are Oncos and Regelias iris interbred with bearded irises.
Sometimes when reading plant descriptions it is difficult to understand what the growers are talking about. I will review for you here basic Iris terminology. Click on the links to see an example of the term or refer to the line drawing. Use the back button to return to this article.
Beard – The fuzzy hairs on top of each of the falls.
Falls – The lower three petals of the flower. These are the petals that hang down.
Flounces – a small petal-like appendage that extends from the end of the beard. Not all irises have them.
Hafts – the top parts of the fall on either side of the beard that is near the center and connects to the stem. This is the heart of the iris.
Horns – when the end of the beard is raised from the fall and turned upward like a spike but is not long enough or ruffled enough to be considered a flounce. Not all irises have them.
Lace – When the edges of petals are serrated.
Rim – A thin edge of color around falls or standards.
Ruffles – Flower edges are fluted or wavy.
Shoulder – Another name for the haft.
Signal – A patch of color at the top center of the falls, coming out from the throat and surrounding the beard. This area is often white or yellow.
Spoons – much like a horn or a flounce except that it is spoon shaped. This appendage extends from the tip of the beard.
Spot – A different colored area on the falls; it may cover most of the fall or be smaller.
Standards – The upper three petals of the flower. These stand upright.
Style Arms – These are the 3 small upright structures found in the heart of the iris bloom above the beard.
Form – Referring to the shape of the flower. Good form means they have good balance and proportions.
Rebloomer – an iris that blooms in any other season than after normal spring bloom, usually summer or fall. Just because an iris is listed as a rebloomer does not mean that it always will. Irises are more likely to rebloom in warmer areas that have longer seasons. Extra water and or fertility as well as “nice” weather that is not to hot or too cold can also encourage rebloom.
Substance – The thickness of the petals. “Good substance” can help the flowers stand up to wind and rain.
Texture – Sheen or finish on the surface of the petals. Texture can also include other descriptive words like diamond dusted which means that it sparkles in the sun or satiny, shimmering or velvety.
Tall Bearded (TB) – over 27.5 inches tall usually with 2 or more branches and at least 7 flowers, Most are taller than this however, 38 to 40 inches is not unusual. Usually the flowers are bigger than other iris too. These are the last irises to bloom but there are earlier and later bloomers within this category also.
Border Bearded (BB) – These irises are again the same height as IB and MTB iris coming in at 16 to 27.5″ tall. What makes these different than the other 2 classes at this height are, first, they bloom late, along with the later tall bearded iris. Next the flowers are larger than IB or BB iris. These flowers can be up to 5 inches across and 8.5 inches tall.
Miniature Tall Bearded (MTB) – These are the same height as the IB irises at 16 to 27.5″ tall. They bloom in the mid-late season alongside the earlier tall bearded iris. The difference is that they whole plant is smaller including the flowers. They are also sometimes called bouquet iris or astable iris. The flowers are smaller and they are carried on slender stems. They also tend to be fragrant.
Intermediate Bearded (IB) – These irises are generally 16 to 27.5″ tall. They bloom in between the standard dwarf bearded and tall bearded irises. The branched stalks are usually taller than the leaves unlike MDB and SDB iris. Most flowers are between 3.5 and 5 inches wide.
Standard Dwarf Bearded (SDB) – This class is usually 8 to 16″ tall, some varieties are branched, but many are not. The flowers are generally less than 4 inches wide many are smaller. These little beauties are early also, usually starting right after the peak of the MDB’s but before the Intermediate irises.
Miniature Dwarf Bearded (MDB) – These are the smallest and earliest they can be up to 8″ tall, but many are shorter. The flowers are usually about 1.5 to 3 inches wide. They usually bloom in April here in Wisconsin. MDB’s have no branching so they don’t bloom as long but they are a nice early addition to the bearded iris family.
Median – This is not actually a class, but you may hear this term. It includes iris in the following classes: Border Bearded, Intermediate Bearded, Miniature Tall Bearded, or Standard Dwarf Bearded.
Amoena – White or near white standards with colored falls.
Bicolor – Light or medium standards and deeper contrasting falls.
Bitone – The standards and falls are different shades of the same color. The falls are usually but not always darker.
Blend – A combination of two or more colors with one of the colors always being yellow. The colors can be even or unevenly applied.
Broken Color – The flower has random splashes of color.
Glaciata – The flower is a very clear white, yellow or pink with no purple or red shades.
Ground Color – This is the main color seen under any spots or veins. This term is usually used with plicatas.
Luminata – The style arms & hafts are white or yellow; and the rest of the flower is a solid color including the beards. There may be veining on falls but there should be no plicata marks.
Neglecta – This is a blue or violet bitone iris, where the standards are lighter than the falls.
Plicata – These have a stippled, dotted or stitched margin color on lighter ground color, or on white.
Reverse – Any of the other mentioned colors, except that the standards are darker than the falls.
Rim or Edge – This is a thin line of color around the falls and /or the standards.
Self – This is what you call an iris that is one solid color.
Variegata – These irises have yellow or near yellow standards with falls that are a deeper color like purple or brown. The falls may be solid or mixed colors.
Veins – These are lines usually emanating from the throat that are a contrasting or darker color or darker color than the falls.
Now that you know “all about Iris” you can amaze your friends with your beautiful flowers and your awesome knowledge.
There are many types of Iris. This article will focus on the types of iris that grow from rhizomes. They can be different in their size; from miniature to tall bearded, but what they have in common is the rhizome.
Irises are really tough. In fact you will sometimes see them growing on old farmsteads long after the buildings have crumbled to rubble. Iris will thrive in most types of soil but the main key to healthy irises is drainage. Planting on a slope or in a raised bed can improve drainage if you have heavy soil. You can add course sand or compost to improve your drainage also. The ideal pH is a slightly acidic 6.8 but they are not too fussy about this. Please don’t attempt to adjust pH with lime of sulfur unless you have had a soil test that tells you how much to add. You can easily add too much.
It is best to plant new iris after they have bloomed. This is why we prefer to ship your iris in July, August or September. We sometimes bend the rules on this to save on shipping if you are ordering other types of perennials and want to save on shipping. Moving iris after bloom is really best for the plant though, and also, if we ship after bloom then we can be absolutely sure that we are sending you the right plant. We don’t recommend moving iris later than September because they must get their roots set before winter sets in, or they can easily be heaved from the ground. If you live in an area with very mild winters we possibly could extend shipping into October. They should be planted at least 6 weeks before the first hard frost in your area.
Iris need at least 6 hours per day of full sun in order to bloom well. Even more is better, but some shade may help if you live in a very hot climate.
When planting Iris, the top of the rhizomes should be exposed and the roots should be spread out and directed down into the ground. They should look like this:
If you live in a very hot area or have very light soil you could put a little soil over the rhizome; no more than an inch. Firm the soil to remove air pockets and then water well. Plant your iris about a foot apart. You could put them a little closer but you will have to thin them sooner.
Irises that have just been planted should be watered frequently until their roots are established. After they are established, it is better to water deeply, less often than to water frequently, but shallow. Really, unless you live in a very dry area or are having a bad year, iris do not need supplemental watering. If you over water they could rot.
We do not fertilize our iris, but if you do wish to fertilize use a low nitrogen fertilizer. This would mean that the middle number should be higher than the first number. If you use high nitrogen fertilizer you will be rewarded with nice leaves at the expense of flowers. It is, however, normal for them not to bloom well the first year after transplant.
Iris can live nearly anywhere because they are very tough plants, but they will do the best if you keep their beds weed free and remove debris that lay on top of the rhizomes. If you use mulch, keep it off the top of the rhizomes, and as it decomposes, check to see if the rhizomes need to be lifted a little to keep them at surface level. Sometimes I use forks to do this by going underneath, without completely digging up the plant…just lifting it and pressing it back down.
Cut off the bloom stalks down to near the ground when all of the buds are done. Remove individual flowers and branches as they finish. Don’t cut the leaves if they are healthy looking. Do cut if they are browning or showing insect damage or leaf spot. In fall trim them to around 6 inches. Irises do not need winter mulch when they are established. If you live in the far north they could benefit the first year as their roots may not be as well established. If you do it use something like straw or evergreen boughs that will allow air circulation rather than something like leaves that will pack down and become a wet mess. Wait to apply winter mulch until the ground is frozen. Remove any winter mulch in fairly early spring.
The biggest problem that Irises can have is rot. The best treatment is prevention. Make sure the soil is well drained and debris is removed. This will prevent them from being too wet and prevent rot. If you do get some rot it is important to remove the rotted part right away. You can stick a serrated knife right in and cut it away, or try a spoon. Sometimes it is necessary to dig up the rhizome. Irises put on new growth each year so the “old part”, the part that is away from the leaves, may eventually shrivel up or rot. Remove these spent “middles” if they are no longer firm. If you have the plant dug up, allow the fresh cuts to dry for a few days before replanting.
Overcrowded irises stop blooming. Depending on the variety and the growing conditions, Iris may need to be divided every 4 or 5 years. They are also more likely to have rot problems if they are crawling on top of each other. Please refer to “planting” above for when and how to divide. I like to leave “forks” (one rhizome with to leaf clusters) attached and if there are small side shoots leave those attached to the main rhizome.
Bring the colors of the rainbow to your garden with these classic and care free beauties.
I often hear gardeners bemoaning the fact that they have moss in their gardens. I will have to say I really don’t get this sentiment. I love moss. It brightens up your garden in early spring with its lush bright green appearance, and softens the edges in your rock garden all year round. Moss gives your garden a rustic, aged appearance.
There are thousands of varieties so if you would like to “encourage” your moss you could end up with a beautiful patchwork, displaying different shades of green and maybe some yellow, blue or even red.
When I can I use bricks and or rocks that already have moss on them, but I find that if you put a few bricks in a shady area that already have the moss it will spread to the ones that don’t.
It is pointless to try and kill moss and grow grass. Just give up please. If you have moss it is too shady for grass. Either learn to love the moss or plant other shade loving plants…like hosta. If you must grow grass in that spot, you need to look at the reasons why grass won’t grow there. Don’t try and kill the moss. Instead try and make the grass grow better. These are the most likely reasons why your grass is not growing well.
There are places where even I need to kill the moss. Here is an example: this is my front walk. I don’t mind the way it looks on the cobbled sidewalk, but it is a slipping hazard.
The safe method that I use is to sprinkle plain old baking soda in the area where the moss is not desired. It is safe for humans, insects and most plants. Wood ash works too but be careful not to wash it into your garden. Both of these work by changing the pH. Wood ash is stronger. Baking soda can even be used on the roof and then the water used to water plants; even edible plants. If it is not a large area you could also try using boiling water or a pressure washer. Since this is “only water” it is also safe for garden creatures and plants.
Most moss killers contain copper, zinc or iron which can be toxic; especially to fish and aquatic life, but garden plants and insects won’t be happy either. Many sources recommend using bleach or vinegar. Vinegar is a little safer, but it will kill nearby plants by changing the pH too much. Chlorine bleach is incredibly toxic to nearby plants, soil life, amphibians, and human lungs. Did you know it was used in WWI as a deadly weapon? When it breaks down it forms cancer-causing dioxins.
If you want less moss in the actual soil of your garden beds, just add compost. This will balance the Ph of your soil and help the change the composition of the soil from fungal (which is what moss likes) to bacterial. It also works by making the surface of your soil uneven which is why mulch will also help in gardens. Moss likes to grow on flat surfaces. Remember these guys are tiny a stick or acorn lying on the ground is like climbing up a mountain for them. Increasing light and air circulation in the area will also help decrease moss.
So enough on how to get rid of moss; what we really want to talk about is inducing you to like moss in the right situation. Don’t automatically kill it. Really, it can be very beautiful.
So what should you do to grow moss? Well, you don’t really have to do anything. Moss happens in the right conditions. There are even certain types of moss that will grow in the sun. Basically, all you need to grow moss is other moss. It will help if the surface that you want to grow moss on is smooth and free of weeds. You can place slabs of moss where you want it to grow. Pat it down well, and if you have a large area to cover and just a little moss to work with you can break it into pieces and let them grow together.
Moss needs moisture to increase but not to stay alive. Some mosses even require dry periods to do well. If you are trying to get moss started (as opposed to just letting it happen) you should keep the area a little wetter than you would your normal garden, but once moss is established you will not need to water it any more than the rest of your garden. Moss does not need deep watering, just a light mist every so often, because it doesn’t have roots. It actually requires a lot less water than grass.
So, what exactly is moss? Like a fern, moss grows from spores. The spores develop green threadlike structures called protonema instead of roots. They push into the ground a little or attach to surfaces but they serve only as anchors and do not take up any nutrients or water. If you are collecting moss to grow in your garden try to get some of the dirt attached or in the case of rocks scrape with a sharp blade so that you break off fewer of the protonema. Mosses eventually develop a tiny flat leave. Moss is actually thousands of plants growing together rather than one big plant that makes up a matt. Moss gets everything it needs from the air which is why it can grow on rocks…cool right?
So what about this pH thing? Well, moss is not particularly fussy about this. They do fine on most soils but prefer a slightly acidic soil. Most moss will not survive if the pH is higher than 6.5.
Contrary to popular belief buttermilk does not help moss grow. It can actually mold and then not smell very nice. Water works just as well. Mosses do not use nutrients so the idea of feeding it with buttermilk, beer or other liquids is simply false. Moss is easy to grow which is why this method sometimes works for people. You are better off using “pieces” instead of putting it in a blender which is sometimes recommended. Then use anything that will help the moss stick to the surface where you want it to grow. Mud works well. The most important factor is that the moss is firmly touching the surface where you want it to grow. So if you want to grow moss on a vertical surface like a pot or a wall it is best if you can lay it horizontal until the moss attaches. This is why methods like buttermilk (or mud) may work, because it helps the moss stick instead of falling off. “Sticking techniques” are not necessary for horizontal surfaces.
Spring is the perfect time to enjoy the moss in your garden. It is in fact one of the stars of the season before your other plants begin to fill in. Please, don’t think of moss as a weed. Instead think of it as the little runt, the underdog, which takes an opportunity where it finds it and ends up succeeding famously.
I’m up early on Easter morning. The snow outside makes it seem like it is still winter, but I’m dreaming of warm, soft breezes and signs of spring.
After the winter it’s natural to look toward the rebirth of spring. Many consider the crocus to be the first spring flower, but there are lots of little bulbs that bloom even earlier.
These little bulbs are sometimes called the “minor bulbs”. They are usually very small. But they can be just as effective as the larger flowering bulbs that come later, like tulips and daffodils. The key is to plant them in mass. Sometimes just one or two here and there are nice too; kind of a little surprise when you take the time to look.
Little beauties like crocus, snowdrops, glory of the snow and early spring iris are especially important because they give the gardener that little reminder that “spring is coming”, when they need it the most. They effectively extend the season to a time that, here in Wisconsin, sometimes even still has snow on the ground giving us a “jump on spring”.
Just like the later blooming daffodils, the little spring bulbs needed to be purchased and planted in fall. There is always next year; my favorite garden saying. Really, you can plant them any time up until the ground freezes. I think they are easier to plant than the large bulbs because they don’t have to go down as deep, usually about 3 or 4 inches. You can even plant them on top of the other bulbs to save garden space.
The biggest mistake that I have made with these little gems is not getting them uncovered early enough. We live in a maple grove so we get a very thick layer of maple leaves in the garden. If you don’t get the leaves off early enough the little cuties will bloom under the leaves and you will never see them. Or, if they do manage to poke their little heads through the leaves they will become spindly and won’t last as long. If you then decide to get the leaves off, when you remember them, you will sadly end up tearing them apart. In recent years I have made a better attempt to get most of the leaves off in fall. It’s a good excuse to get out there and get some exercise. You have to do it sooner or later, and really, don’t you have enough to do in spring? Then in spring it is an easier clean up, really just a touch up to get the ones that blew in over the winter, and you can concentrate on the areas where you know the little bulbs are coming….that is if they aren’t still covered with snow.
Speaking of snow, don’t worry if they get dumped on. They are used to it and they can take both snow and cold temps. They just close up and wait until the sun comes out again.
Early spring bulbs enjoy sunlight, but it will be fine if you plant them under deciduous trees because they will not have leaves at this time of year.
One other thing to remember; just like the bigger bulbs, don’t remove the foliage when they are done blooming. They need this to store energy for next year. Don’t worry; the rest of your garden will start to grow and you will forget all about them. If you have your bulbs naturalized in the grass, wait a week or two longer to mow the first time. Your spring bulbs will reward you for it. Many times when planting another perennial I dig them up by accident. This is not a problem, just replant them. It probably will help increase them as after they have been in the ground for a few years they tend to grow in clumps. This way you can divide them.
So let’s look more closely at some of my favorite “minor bulbs”:
Glory-of-the-snow comes in blue, white and pink. They are very hardy (zone 3 to 8) and are perfect for naturalizing, along the edge of the border or in rock gardens. The flowers are star shaped with a white or light yellow center. Bloom time is usually late March here in Wisconsin and they only grow to about 4 to 5 inches. The white and pink varieties will be a little taller; up to 8 inches.
Snowdrops seem to be on their own schedule. If you get a warm snap they may bloom earlier some years than others. Further south they may bloom in January but it is usually late February or March “up-north”. The stems of the common variety are about 4 inches but there are also some slightly bigger varieties. They have solitary, drooping, white flowers with green spots. Plant them near a walk or on a raised bed. Somewhere that you will notice them popping through the snow. It is amazing to see these frosty-white beauties on a sunny, but still cold and snowy afternoon.
There are lots of types of Dwarf Iris and most of them do grow in early spring; some earlier than others. The genus “Iris” was the name of the Greek goddess of the rainbow. I’ll briefly tell you about some of my favorites. As with most early spring flowers they are small; some only 3 inches and most under 8 inches.
Iris cristata is one that steals my heart. This is a native wildflower that spreads by underground rhizomatous stems. There are different varieties ranging slightly in size and they come in colors from purple to blue to white. They have yellow crested markings…so cute, and are super hardy and carefree. The rhizomes should be planted near or at the surface just like their larger cousins. Mimic their natural wooded habitat, which includes moist, well-draining soil and iris cristata will be happy. Adding a little leaf mold will make them sing.
Iris reticulata is another cute easy to grow miniature iris. These little ones can be purple, white or yellow. Their foliage is grassy. It will grow a little taller after the flowers fade. Lightly-scented flowers are usually violet to purple, although white, yellow, and light-blue cultivars are available. Foliage is delicate and grassy. They multiply rapidly and are excellent for rock gardens and sunny borders. The reticulated iris group consists of a number of small bulbous irises whose bulbs have netted or reticulate bulb coverings (tunics) on the dry bulbs. All species of reticulated iris are native to western Asia. Iris reticulata (purple) and Iris danfordiae (yellow) are two of most commonly known species in the reticulated group. My favorite from this group ‘Katherine Hodgkin’ is a reticulated iris hybrid, whose parents are Iris winogradowii (pale yellow flowers) and Iris histrioides (pale blue flowers). Intricately marked pale blue flowers of this hybrid have distinctive deep blue veining with a purple-spotted yellow blotch at the base of each fall. This hybrid was introduced in 1958 by E. B. Anderson and named after the wife of rare bulb enthusiast Eliot Hodgkin. These bulbs tend to generally decline for me. I think there are 2 possible reasons. First many of them, including Katherine, are listed as zone 5. They do however live through the winter and multiply in many years. Or, possibly it is because they don’t like to be wet in summer. They like it moist in spring but then need dry conditions or they will not multiply.
Miniature Dwarf Bearded Iris (MDB) is another favorite of mine. Though they are not really common, there are hundreds of varieties. This is one of the more recent things that I have been collecting, so watch for them to become available from Catrina’s Garden in future years. They are just like the large Standard Dwarf Bearded Iris except that they grow no taller than 8 inches and bloom earlier. Some are only 2 inches tall. Here in WI they bloom in late March or early April. MDB iris does best in climates that are cold in the winter. They are great in rock gardens or raised beds. It is nice to have them raised a bit so that you can smell them, because many of them are fragrant. Here are some of my new babies (click on a picture to see a slide show then click in the gray area to return):
Crocuses are among one of the most popular of the early spring bloomers. There are many different species and cultivars but there are 3 main groups: C. chrysanthus (Golden Crocus), C. vernus (Dutch Crocus) and the third group is varied types of botanic species crocus. There are Crocus species that flower in autumn also. This is the type of crocus that saffron comes from. Golden crocus are very small and flower the earliest. Dutch crocus have larger flowers that are later and tend to be more pastel. This is the most common type. They naturalize nicely, or can be grown in the rock garden or somewhere that you will see them often. Crocus come in a wide range of colors from different shades of purple, blues, pinks, whites and yellows. There are even striped crocus. The foliage is grass like and some species have a silver strip down the center of each blade. They are actually corms rather than bulbs. Be sure to plant them with the point up and the roots down. Well actually even if you plant them upside down they will adjust. Crocuses love cold climates like zones 3 to 7 and will not do well where it is hotter. They like to be in the sun and will actually close up when it is cloudy. They do best in a sandy or gritty soil; something that will drain well. Animals like voles and mice will sometimes eat crocus. If you have a problem with this planting them away from the house or in areas without a lot of cover may help. Some people that have real problems with this put them inside little wire cages under the ground.
This time of year it seems we can have it all. I enjoy skiing and our ski hill here is still open, and the conditions are amazingly good, but we can also enjoy these little “signs of spring”; just about the time that we begin to think that winter will never end.
Easter is tomorrow. Let’s remember that the resurrection is for the garden too. Spring brings the waking of the natural world after the dead of winter. The tradition and symbolism associated with Easter in the Northern hemisphere is very much a spring festival, and we think of the Christian resurrection, but also of life and rebirth in general.
The Easter lily is the most popular Easter flower in America. Millions are grown each year. They are usually forced in greenhouses to assure that they bloom at the right time. Long before the advent of Christianity, the Lily was considered a symbol of life and was associated with various goddesses of fertility. For Christians, the white lily stands for purity, and the Easter lily has become a symbol for us of the resurrection of Christ. The most commonly grown lily, that is called “Easter Lily” is the Bermuda lily (Lilium longiflorum). However, other white cultivars are also grown as Easter lily. In many areas you can plant your lily outside after it has served as an “Easter Lily”. In future years it will not flower at Easter time. I guess I don’t personally care for Easter Lilies, and they are not hardy here in far northern Wisconsin. We did, however, have them growing in our garden when we lived in southern Wisconsin. Here is my “Easter Lily”; it is the “Regal Lily” (Lillium Regale). It is much taller than everyone else’s “Easter Lilies” at about 4 feet and has a pink cast. It blooms in late July, not at Easter time. The original “Easter Lily” was probably the exquisite Madonna lily (Lilium candidum), which grows wild in the Mediterranean, but not in Wisconsin. Madonna lily looks a lot like our modern Easter lily but it also is a lot taller.
The pasque flower is another plant closely associated with Easter. It is from the genus Pulatilla, which is sometimes considered a subgenus of the Anemone. The pasque flower blooms in the spring and its name comes from the French word “Pasque” which means Easter. It has also been known as the “pash flower” or “passion flower”. Although it is more obscure; for me, this is the best flower for Easter. It blooms naturally at this time and is fully hardy. There are native and hybrid varieties from Europe but there are also closely related North American natives. The botanical name also has references to Easter, the genus, Pulsatilla, means “beaten” (as in beaten by the wind, or “wind-blown”). This may refer to the way that the wind treats these early flowers, but it also reminds us how Jesus was treated. Meanwhile, vulgaris means “common.” European and hybrid varieties can be lavender, dark purple, reddish-purple, cream or white.
Pasque flower or Pulsatilla vulgaris is a member of the buttercup family (Ranunulaceae). Closely related is Pulsatilla Patens (sometimes classified as Anemone Patens) this is the one that is native here in North America. Patens means “spreading”.
It is perennial and grows to only about 8 inches high. Pasque Flower forms a clump that spreads over time, but not quickly. This little beauty is found across the Great Plains and into Alaska and Siberia. The solitary flowers come up first from each basil cluster. There are 5 to 8 petals which are not actually petals but “sepals”. They are fuzzy on the outside but not on the inside. They can be lavender, blue or white. The pistil terminates in what looks like a purple fuzzy button. The color may vary according to the flower color.
This is surrounded by 150 to 200 stamens with yellow anthers. My favorite thing about them is that the leaves, stems and undersides of the flowers are covered with silky hair. These “fuzzy” plants then develop beautiful wispy seed heads that are as nice if not nicer than the flowers.
Another bonus with pasque flowers is that animals like Easter bunnies and deer don’t eat them. There are not very many flowers that bloom this early. Snowdrops, crocus and other spring bulbs compliment the pasque flower and the Lenten rose or hellebore actually precedes it, blooming even earlier than Easter. There is something special about those first flowers to greet you in spring after a long hard winter. Sometimes they even bloom through the snow here in Wisconsin.
Plant Pasque flower in full sun to part shade. It likes well drained sandy or loamy soil.
The plant is now generally considered to be poisonous and is not recommended to be used externally either as it will raise blisters on the skin. It was, however, used in the past by Native Americans to induce labor and for skin lesions and arthritis. Other medicinal uses are also mentioned by various sources.
Pasque flower is sometimes confused with Prairie Smoke (Geum Triflorum). The seed heads look similar but are more reddish than Pasque flower and the flowers are also reddish.
Easter’s coming makes me think of all these flowers popping out. As Christians
celebrate the resurrection of Christ we also mark the return of spring. With more than a foot of snow falling on Holy Wednesday this year it will seem more miraculous and more to be celebrated this year than ever. The flowers were peaking up before the blizzard so when spring finally comes – as soon it will – it will truly seem like a rebirth.
Daylilies are the ideal plant to purchase bare root. They are tough, and the way the root system develops will help them travel well. The thick swellings are actually tuberous roots. They store energy for the plant and help them if they are out of the ground or living in a pot for a while.
Here at Catrina’s garden we do not store your daylilies over the winter. They are kept in the ground until spring when we dig them the day before we ship them. After digging them we clean, trim and label them, then we let them dry for a few hours before they are packed. All of these steps are important.
All soil is cleaned from your daylilies. Although daylilies (especially those grown in the north) don’t have many disease or insect problems; removing the soil prevents nearly any chance of moving soil insects and weeds from one area of the country to another.
So why do we cut them back? Even though daylilies are really tough, all plants are shocked when transplanted and will need to go through a recovery period. Cutting them back has 4 purposes. It allows us to fit more plants in the box. It makes it easier for us to see the crowns when dividing. Most important is that it is better for the plant. There will be less foliage that the plant needs to support while recovering, and lastly there is less water lost from the plant when there is less foliage. When you plant your new plant it is normal for the outer leaves to dry up and turn brown and you will notice new green foliage coming from the center of the crown.
Your plants are dried before they are packaged so that they will not rot or grow any mold while they are in the box. They are labeled for obvious reasons…so that you know which is which, since you can’t tell them apart otherwise…until they bloom.
The most important thing when receiving your plants is to plant them as soon as possible. You may want to start finding a spot for them and getting the soil prepared when you hear from us that they are being shipped.
In choosing their new home there are four things to be considered
When preparing the spots for your daylilies work the soil down at least a foot to loosen it up. Your hole should be bigger than the root mass if possible.
Because your plants have been dried and have spent some time in a dark box you may want to put them in a bucket of water for a few hours before planting them. Some people don’t agree with this. If your plants don’t look dry at all this may not be necessary. The big thing here is not to leave them in the water too long…over night at the longest. Leaving them in water longer than this could lead to rot. If you can’t get them planted right away bury the roots in a bucket of damp sand or plant them temporarily in a pot or close together in the ground. Please keep them watered.
Some people like to add a weak solution of fertilizer to the water. This could help but be sure that it is not too strong or it could burn them. We don’t use fertilizer because we garden organically. When I purchase my own daylilies I put a small shovel full of compost in the water to make a compost tea. If they don’t look dry it is perfectly fine to plant immediately and water well.
Water them well…ah yes; that is the key. Daylilies being the strong carefree plants that they are need little supplemental water in most areas, once established. They do however need frequent watering when they are first planted; especially if planted in the summer, or in hot, dry climates.
So how exactly do you plant them?
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